When you first encounter the EST theory you might feel a little uneasy, you might be tempted to discard it outright because of the unfamiliar line of reasoning leading to the theory. You probably never have heard of, or ever considered, the possibility that the pace of time might slow down and might think it is a crackpot idea. But, if you have any feeling for physics you should realize that the pace of time very well might vary with (location in) time just a like it may vary with location in space, for example due to gravitational fields. Thus, it is conceivable that all four metrics of spacetime might change with time. So, why not look into this possibility to see what it entails? After all, we are trying to find a model of the universe that better agrees with observations. Everyone who has worked in the field of cosmology for some time must have noticed several inconsistencies and observational discrepancies with the Standard (Big Bang) Cosmological Model (SCM). But, there has been a tendency to sweep these under the rug. To continue ignoring these clear contraindications would be wishful thinking rather than science.
Let's face the facts. The SCM just doesn't fly. There are far too many discrepancies that people have tried to resolve by an embarrassing number of modifications. We might call them modern epicycles. You know some of them: dark matter, dark energy, galaxy halos, biasing, evolution (with sometimes contradicting scenarios), stars and galaxies older than the universe, inflationary expansion, accelerating expansion, cosmological constant, etc.. I think it is unfortunate that we have permitted cosmological speculation to go this far. It would have been better simply to admit that observations don't agree with the SCM and that we don't know why.
We have to realize that there might be much more to the universe than we presently know. Let's therefore with open minds investigate the EST idea that the universe might expand by changing the four metrics of spacetime. You might think that the EST theory is speculative since it assumes that the pace of time slows down. This is true, but why should the universe conform to presently known physics? There might be new physics that better explains the workings of the universe. The fact that the SCM fails several cosmological tests is a clear indication that something is seriously wrong with it. So, let's not deceive ourselves by believing that we already know all relevant physics.
Symmetries are of fundamental importance in modern physics and the most important symmetry of all is scale invariance, since it preserves the geometry of spacetime and with this all laws of physics. The universe might make use of this fundamental symmetry and evolve by uniformly changing all four spacetime metrics. This would allow time to progress without cosmological aging in a universe without limits in either space or time.
You might wonder why someone within the academic community hasn't already proposed and investigated the EST theory. The reason could be the same as why most technical innovations don't come from large corporations. Every true innovation implies the risk of failure since it advances the state of art and enters unfamiliar terrain. Individuals in an organization typically are not willing to expose themselves to the risk of failure. It is much safer just to go along with the consensus. Nobody in the academic community would risk being considered unscientific by suggesting something that goes against the mainstream belief, particularly if it would threaten to invalidate the work of others. Therefore, true innovation usually comes from someone on the outside, someone who is free from constraints.
The EST is compelling in its simplicity. It ties together the largest possible cosmological scale with the smallest possible domain of quantum theory. The new theory is a natural consequence of just three fundamental assumptions:
Based on these three assumptions one can mathematically conclude that the observed cosmological expansion must be a spacetime expansion that includes everything. I show that such an expansion mode would give a superior explanation to the universe as observed without the need to speculate on possible evolution over time, since existence is eternal. This expansion of spacetime occurs at all levels from galaxies to elementary particles and it progresses in discrete temporal steps since otherwise different epochs would not be equivalent according to general relativity. We do not notice these extremely tiny discrete temporal steps due to their very small amplitude and very high frequency. Modeling high frequency oscillations in spacetime naturally leads to quantum theory. If the spacetime metrics oscillate, fundamental quantum mechanical relations can be derived directly from general relativity. This explains the nature of the quantum mechanical wave functions as being modulations of the metrics of space, and provides the missing link between general relativity and quantum mechanics. The scale expansion also implies the existence of a cosmological reference frame that resolves the problem with the non-local action in quantum mechanics and provides a cosmological inertial reference frame.
In making these rather bold claims I span quite a broad spectrum. Experts in the various specialties from cosmology to quantum theory will undoubtedly find shortcomings and inadequacies in my reasoning. It they do, their criticism is welcome as long as they specify just what is wrong with a certain idea or conclusion and not merely give a negative assessment based on a general unwillingness to recognize the possibility that currently accepted epistemology might be inadequate or simply wrong. It is so easy to discard a different point of view, which disagrees with your own long held conviction, based on emotion rather than reason. However, by presenting a coherent yet somewhat incomplete description of our world I hope to reach people searching for the truth. I am reaching out to a new generation that might verify the EST theory and in doing so will free us from old myths and misconceptions.
Science typically progresses in a more or less continuous manner by adding new incremental pieces of knowledge to already known epistemology. Thousands of peer-reviewed articles are published in scientific journals each year. Before an article is accepted for publication in such a journal, specialists first evaluate it to assert that it is scientifically sound. The referees typically are professional scientists or educators well versed in current epistemology. An article is accepted if it agrees with the views held by the reviewers and if the presentation and conclusion is based on sound scientific reasoning according to contemporary epistemology. Authors already familiar to the reviewers with views in line with the currently accepted thinking usually have no problems getting their papers accepted for publication. However, unknown authors with different ideas may encounter great difficulties, in particular if they advocate something threatening status quo. Unfortunately this state of affairs imposes severe constraints on the promulgation of new scientific ideas.
As a result fundamentally new and revolutionary ideas might not be published in scientific journals. By the standard imposed by some editors new ideas in science are considered suspect regardless of their merit simply because of their novelty and because they might not fit into established teachings. In addition, any new idea that threatens to obsolete some well-accepted theory often is rejected outright without serious review. In this situation even a novel and brilliant idea might not be given a fair hearing.
History is full of examples of how difficult it is to purvey a new idea and to make people accept and believe in something new and different. One extreme example is taken from the early times of heavier than air flight as recounted in the delightful book “Alternative Science” by Richard Milton. The Wright brothers has been flight testing their airplane at Huffman's Prairie at Dayton, Ohio for several years, but local and national newspapers repeatedly refused to send any reporter to watch these early flights and to publicize them simply because leading scientist of the day had declared that heavier than air flight was impossible. This shows that people may close their minds to something that is deemed different and strange “that shouldn't be” to the extent of even refusing to believe their own eyes, perhaps fearing to be ridiculed. It takes an independent mind and strength of character to decide whether or not a fundamentally new idea has merit.
In this context I quote a comment by Louis de Broglie (From the book “Heisenberg's uncertainties and the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics”):
“The need for freedom in scientific research.
The history of science teaches that the greatest advances in the scientific domain have been achieved by bold thinkers, who perceived new and fruitful approaches that others failed to notice. If one had taken the ideas of these scientific geniuses, who have been the promoters of modern science, and submitted them to committees of specialists, there is no doubt that the latter would have viewed them as extravagant and would have discarded them for the very reason of their originality and profundity. As a matter of fact, the battles waged, for example by Fresnel and by Pasteur suffice to prove that some of these pioneers ran into a lack of understanding from the side of eminent scholars which they had to fight with vigor before emerging as the winners. More recently, in the domain of theoretical physics, of which I can speak with knowledge, the magnificent novel conceptions of Lorentz and Planck, and particularly Einstein also clashed with the incomprehension of eminent scientists. The new ideas here triumphed; but, in proportion as the organization of research becomes more rigid, the danger increases that new and fruitful ideas will be unable to develop freely.
Let us state in a few words the conclusion to be drawn from the foregoing. While, by the very force of circumstances, research and teaching are weighted down by administrative structures and financial concerns and by the heavy armature of strict regulations and planning, it becomes more indispensable than ever to preserve the freedom of scientific research and the freedom of initiative for the original investigators, because these freedoms have always been and will always remain the most fertile sources for the grand progress of science.”
April 25, 1978
Louis de Broglie
I offer the EST theory to your careful consideration. For some of you the idea of an expanding spacetime will seem very natural simply because you realize that an absolute and fixed scale of things does not seem reasonable in a relativistic universe. If such an absolute scale existed it would have to be determined by something “outside the universe”, which is a contradiction since the universe by definition contains all there is. Ironically people with limited scientific schooling will find it quite easy to accept this fundamental insight as well as the EST theory since to them the EST universe appears much more plausible then the Big Bang scenario. However, people intimately familiar with the details of the Big Bang theory might have difficulties with the EST theory in spite of its clear advantages. The problem is that although scale invariance is a well-known scientific fact, the continuous manifold of general relativity cannot model an expanding scale where all epochs are equivalent. But, I am confident that eventually reason will prevail and that Okham's razor will give the final verdict.
If you fully grasp the essence of the EST theory as presented on this web site and in my book it is not only with your logical mind but also with your heart. Spellbound we face a cosmos of infinite depth and eternal existence. How many other intelligent beings out there are gazing into the stars just like we do, wondering just like we do. Human awareness stretches back a few million years, a mere instant in the immensity of time. If there is other intelligence in the Milky Way the probability that it has reached our level of development and are close enough to communicate at this particular time is vanishing small. But, somewhere further out there, there might be intelligence that is much, much older, perhaps billions of years older than humanity. How would such intelligence view us? How would they communicate with us? Would they even be interested? We don't know much; we are at the very beginning of cosmic awareness. However, intelligence is rare and precious in the universe. We are divine seeds.
Looking here at the Earth and the humanity of today we realize how far there is left for us to go. With minds imprisoned in preconception, superstition and fundamentalist religion, with eyes looking down preoccupied by our daily chores, not caring or daring to contemplate the wonder of just being, we jealously defend our limited view of the world secure in a false belief that we know all we need or care to know. Perhaps this is a psychological defense strategy; we shudder with a feeling of vertigo confronted with the eternity of time and space, of vastness beyond vastness and the question of life's meaning.
I would like to conclude with a humble confession. I fully realize that the EST theory in its present form by no means is the final word. Even our most advanced theories are no more than a faint reflection of reality, shadows on the wall in Plato's cave. How could it be otherwise? We will always interpret what we see in terms of what we know and fill in the missing blanks by speculation. This has always been the case and will always be the case. There will always be more to learn that will revise our worldview. Regardless, the EST theory could represent a significant step forward since it opens the door to a whole new field of study, the modulation of the spacetime metrics. History has shown that when humanity discovers a new field it will soon invade it. This new technology might bring us further than anything even imagined since it would allow us to control and use the ultimate power source of the universe, which is the expanding spacetime itself. Like children playing with fire we have already discovered this energy in the form of nuclear power. But, this is no more than a crude beginning. When we really learn how to safely use the eternal power of the universe we will fly to the stars.
I invite your comments and contributions to this web site, which will be the focal point for further development of the Expanding Spacetime theory. Future articles will be published here and you can follow the development of a new worldview - the marriage of science and spirit.
Thank you for your interest. I may be reached at:
C. J. Masreliez Ph. D. The EST Foundation, 3209 West Lake Sammamish Pkwy N. E. Redmond, WA 98052 e-mail:email@example.com